Mahatma Gandhi (Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi) (2 October 186 – 30 January 1948) was a major political and spiritual leader of the Indian and Indian independence movement. He was the leader of resistance to tyranny through satyagraha (universal civil disobedience), the foundation of this concept was laid on the principle of total non-violence which has given freedom to India and for the movement of public rights and independence of the whole world. inspired. He knows the general public in the name of Mahatma Gandhi in the world. In the Sanskrit language, the Mahatma or the great soul is an honorable word. Gandhi was first addressed by Rajdhya Jivaram Kalidas in 1915 as Mahatma. They are also remembered as Bapu (Bapu Bapu in the Gujarati language). Subhash Chandra Bose had asked for blessings and good wishes for the freedom fighters of Azad Hind Fauj, while addressing him as Rashtrapati in Rangamati Radio on July 6, 1944, in the name of Gandhi Ji. On October 2, every year, his birthday is celebrated in India as Gandhi Jayanti and in the name of International Non-Violence Day all over the world.
First of all, Gandhi started satyagraha as an expatriate lawyer in the struggle for civil rights of the people of the Indian community in South Africa. In 1915, he returned to India. After that he united the farmers, laborers and urban workers here to raise voice against excessive land tax and discrimination. After assuming the reins of the Indian National Congress in 1921, he organized several programs against the untouchability to provide relief from poverty, expansion of women's rights, construction of religious and ethnic unity, and self-reliance across the country. In all of these, Swaraj's program of emancipation from the foreign state was the only major event. Gandhiji received great popularity in the 1930 Salt Satyagraha in protest against the salt imposed by the British Government on Indians and after this, in 1942, the British left India. South Africa and India on various occasions had to spend several years in jail.
Gandhi ji obeyed non-violence and truth in all circumstances and advocated for all to follow them. He spent his life in the Sabarmati Ashram and used to wear traditional Indian dress dhoti and shawl made from yarn which he used to make yarn with his hands by hand. He ate a simple vegetarian diet and kept long-term fast for self-purification.
Mahatma Gandhi (Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi) Early life
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born in western India on 2 October 1869 at Porbandar, a coastal town in present-day Gujarat. His father, Karamchand Gandhi, belonged to the Pansari race of Sanatan Dharma, and during the British rule, the Diwan of Porbandar, a small princely state of Kathiawar, was the chief minister. Gandhī in Gujarati means Pansari, whereas, in Hindi language, Gandhi means selling perfume flowers, which is called perfumer in English. His mother was Potalibai Parnami Vaishya Community. Putlibai was the fourth wife of Karamchand. Their first three wives had died during childbirth. Due to the maintenance of the devoted mother and the Jain traditions of that area, the impact on young Mohandas had already started, which had played an important role in his life. These influences included the feeling of passion in the weaker sections, vegetarian life, fasting for self-purification and tolerance among people of different castes.
Mahatma Gandhi (Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi) Marriages
In May 1883, after completing the age of half-13 years, he was married to Kasturba Makhanji, a 14-year-old. The first name of the wife was shortened to Kasturba and it was said that people loved them by love. This marriage was a systematic child marriage arranged by his parents, which was then prevailing in that area. But in that area, there was a similar custom that the adolescent bride had to live longer than her parents' house and her husband. In 1885, when Gandali was 15 years old, his first child was born. But he survived only a few days And this year his father Karamchand Gandhi also settled. Mohandas and Kasturba had four children who were all sons. Harilal Gandali In 1888, Manilal Gandali was born in 1892, Ramdas Gandhali in 1897 and Devdas Gandhi in 1900. From Porbandar he did high school from the middle and Rajkot. He was an average student in both examinations. After the matriculation examination, he passed from Shamaldas College of Bhavnagar with some difficulty. As long as they remained unhappy because their family wanted to make them a barrister.
Mahatma Gandhi (Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi) Education abroad and advocacy abroad
Almost a month before his 19th birthday, on 4 September 1888 Gandhi University College went to England to study law and become a barrister in England. While leaving India, a promise given to his mother for the sacrifice of meat, liquor and narrow ideology to Hindus in front of Jain Bhikshu Betaraji was greatly influenced by the time spent in London in his imperial capital. Although Gandhi Ji experienced English customs, for example, to go, dancing classes, etc. Yet he could digest meat and leaf cabbage by his landlady. He pointed to some vegetarian eateries. Instead of directly adopting what he read about his mother's desires, he accepted his meals of vegetarian food with intellectualism. He got membership of the vegetarian society and he was selected for his executive committee, where he laid the foundations of a local chapter. He later set up significant experience in agencies credited it with giving. Some of the vegetarians whom they met were also members of the Theosophical Society. This society was established in 1875 to strengthen world morality and was dedicated to the study of the literature of Buddhism and Sanatan religion.
They inspired Gandhiji to read Srimad Bhagavad Gita. Before reading about Hindu, Christian, Buddhist, Islam and other religions, Gandhi did not show particular interest in religion. After returning to England and Wales Bar Association, he returned to India, but he did not have any particular success in advocating in Bombay. Later, as part of a high school teacher, he refused Rajkot to become the permanent head of state for writing lawsuits for the needy. But due to the stupidity of an English officer, he had to leave the business too. In his autobiography, he described this phenomenon as a failed attempt of philanthropy on behalf of his elder brother. This was the reason that he accepted the legal profession in 1893 from an Indian firm in Natal South Africa, which was then part of the British Empire, on a one-year contract.
Mahatma Gandhi (Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi) Civil rights movement in South Africa (1893-19 14)
In South Africa, Gandhali faced discrimination on the Indians. Initially, he was thrown out of the train to refuse to go to the third class compartment after getting a valid first class coach ticket. Not only this, the rest of the trip on the footpath had to bear the driver's death when a European passenger arrived. He also faced many other difficulties in his visit. Many hotels in Africa were barred for them. Likewise, one of the many incidents was that in which the court judge ordered him to take his turban, which he did not accept. All these events became a turning point in the life of Gandhian and became the cause of awareness towards the existing social injustice and proved to be helpful in interpreting social activism. In view of the injustice done to Indians in South Africa, Gandhis raised questions about respect for their countrymen and their own position in the country under the English Empire.
Mahatma Gandhi (Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi) Role of the Zulu war of 1906
In 1906, two English officers were killed after implementing new election tax in Zulu (South Africa) South Africa. In exchange, the British started a war against the Zulu. Gandhiji actively inspired British officers to recruit Indians. They argued that Indians should cooperate in war efforts to put their citizenship claims in good faith. However, the British had refused to give their positions to Indians in their army. In spite of this, he accepted Gandhiji's proposal that Indians could work voluntarily to bring the injured English soldiers to Stretcher for treatment. Gandhi was the patron of this core. On 21 July (July 21), Gandhiji wrote in the Indian Opinion that the use of the Natal Government in connection with the operation against 23 Indian  residents A core has been formed on the said side. Indian people in South Africa urged Indian Opinion to join this war through their columns and said if the government is the only one Cross that is that reserve forces are useless if they will use it and give it the opportunity by training Indians for the real battle.
In Gandhi's opinion, the draft ordinance of 1906 was like bringing Indians' status to the level below the resident. Therefore, giving the example of “Kaffir” on the lines of Satyagraha, he urged the Indians to oppose the Ordinance. In his words, “Even half the castes and infidels who are less modern than us have opposed the government. The pass rule applies to them but they do not show passes.
Mahatma Gandhi (Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi)Conflicts of Indian Independence (1916-19 45)
Gandhi returned to live in India in 1915 from South Africa. He expressed his views on the conventions of the Indian National Congress, but his views were based on the main issues of India, politics and the prominent Indian leader of the Congress party at that time, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, a respected leader.
Mahatma Gandhi (Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi) Champaran and Kheda
Gandhi's first major achievement was found in Champaran Satyagraha and Kheda Satyagraha in 1918, however, despite the need for non-food crops for their sustenance, the cultivating food crops of Neel (indigo) cash crops were also important. Indigenous repatriation granted to the oppressed Indians by the power of landlords (most of the British) was given due to which they were severely overwhelmed with poverty. The villages are badly dirty and unhygienic; And was tied up with alcohol, untouchability, and curtain. Now due to a devastating famine, the British repressed the repression of the imperial treasury, whose burden was increasing day by day. This situation was disappointing. There was also the same problem in Kheda, Gujarat. Gandhiji made an ashram there where many of his supporters and new voluntary workers were organized. He conducted a detailed study and survey of the villages in which the horrific scandals of the atrocities on beings were kept in an account and in which the unproductive general state of the people was included. While creating faith in the villagers, he started his work by cleaning the villages under which schools and hospitals were created and motivated rural leadership to eliminate many social evils mentioned above.
But its main effect was seen when the police arrested them for spreading unrest and ordered them to leave the province. Thousands of people protested and demanded to release Gandhiji unconditionally by taking out rallies outside prisons, police stations and courts. Gandhiji led protests and strikes against the landlords who, under the guidance of the English government, signed an agreement to grant more compensation to the poorer farmers of that area, control over agriculture, cancel the rise in revenue and to collect it. Done During this struggle, Gandhiji was addressed by the people in the name of Bapu Father and Mahatma (great soul). In Kheda, Sardar Patel led the farmers to discuss with the British in which the British emanated from the collection of revenue,